Anthropology Syllabus Wise Materials: Paper I [UPSC]
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines:
- Social Sciences,
- Behavioural Sciences,
- Life Sciences,
- Medical Sciences,
- Earth Sciences and
- (a) Social- cultural Anthropology.
- (b) Biological Anthropology.
- (c) Archaeological Anthropology.
- (d) Linguistic Anthropology.
- Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy;
- Primate Adaptations (Arboreal and Terrestrial);
- Primate Taxonomy;
- Primate Behaviour;
- Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates;
- Living Major Primates;
- Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes;
- Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:
- (a) Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa – Australopithecines.
- (b) Homo erectus:
- (c) Neanderthal Man-
- (d) Rhodesian man.
- (e) Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of life:
- The Cell,
- DNA structure and replication,
- Protein Synthesis,
- Chromosomes, and
- Cell Division.
(b) Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
2.1 The Nature of Culture:
2.2 The Nature of Society:
- Concept of Society;
- Society and Culture;
- Social Institutions;
- Social groups; and
- Social stratification.
- Definition and universality;
- Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo);
- Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage).
- Functions of marriage;
- Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive);
- Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
- Definition and universality;
- Family, household and domestic groups;
- functions of family;
- Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession);
- Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
- Consanguinity and Affinity;
- Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal);
- Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred);
- Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory);
- Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;
- Descent and Alliance.
3. Economic organization:
- Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology;
- Formalist and Substantivist debate;
- Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture;
- globalization and indigenous economic systems.
4. Political organization and Social Control:
- Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state;
- concepts of power, authority and legitimacy;
- social control, law and justice in simple societies.
- Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional);
- monotheism and polytheism;
- sacred and profane;
- myths and rituals;
- forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism);
- religion, magic and science distinguished;
- magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
6. Anthropological theories:
- (a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
- (b) Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
- (c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe- Brown)
- (d) Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)
- (e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).
- (f) Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
- (g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
- (h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
- (i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
- (j) Post- modernism in anthropology
7. Culture, language and communication:
- Nature, origin and characteristics of language;
- verbal and non-verbal communication;
- social context of language use
8. Research methods in anthropology:
(c) Tools of data collection:
- Case study,
- oral history,
- secondary sources of information,
- participatory methods.
9.1 Human Genetics :
- Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study
- biochemical methods,
- immunological methods,
- D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.4 Chromosomes andchromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
9.5 Race and racism,
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes.
Physiological characteristics- Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.
Ageing and senescence- Theories and observations
biological and chronological longevity.
12. Applications of Anthropology:
- Anthropology of sports,
- Nutritional anthropology,
- Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments,
- Forensic Anthropology,
- Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction,
- Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
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