Categories AnthropologyAnthropology I

Anthropology Syllabus Wise Materials: Paper I [UPSC]

Anthropology Syllabus Wise Materials: Paper I [UPSC]

1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines:

  1. Social Sciences,
  2. Behavioural Sciences,
  3. Life Sciences,
  4. Medical Sciences,
  5. Earth Sciences
  6. Humanities

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:

(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.

(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian 1, 2, 3 , Darwinian and Post- Darwinian 1, 2 ).

(c) Synthetic theory of evolution;

   Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s ruleGause’s rule,  parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

1.5 Characteristics of Primates;

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:

1.7 The biological basis of life:

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology.

         Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.

      (b) Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:

2.1 The Nature of Culture:

The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization;

Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2 The Nature of Society: 

  1. Concept of Society;
  2. Society and Culture;
  3. Social Institutions;
  4. Social groups; and
  5. Social stratification.

2.3 Marriage:

2.4 Family:

2.5 Kinship:

3. Economic organization:

4. Political organization and Social Control:

5. Religion:

6. Anthropological theories:

7. Culture, language and communication:

8. Research methods in anthropology:

(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology

(b) Distinction between technique,method and methodology

(c) Tools of data collection:

  1. observation,
  2. interview,
  3. schedules,
  4. questionnaire,
  5. Case study,
  6. genealogy,
  7. life-history,
  8. oral history,
  9. secondary sources of information,
  10. participatory methods.

(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1 Human Genetics :

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy- Weinberg law;

causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift.

Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

(b) Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

(c) Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-duchat syndromes.

(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5 Race and racism,

biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters.

Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment;

biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA, Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes.

Physiological characteristics- Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors.

Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and development:

stages of growth – pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.

Ageing and senescence- Theories and observations

biological and chronological longevity.

Human physique and somatotypes.

Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility.

Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2 Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology:

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