Anthropology Syllabus Wise Materials: Paper I [UPSC]
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines:
- (a) Social- cultural Anthropology.
- (b) Biological Anthropology.
- (c) Archaeological Anthropology.
- (d) Linguistic Anthropology.
- Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy;
- Primate Adaptations (Arboreal and Terrestrial);
- Primate Taxonomy;
- Primate Behaviour;
- Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates;
- Living Major Primates;
- Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes;
- Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:
- (a) Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa – Australopithecines.
- (b) Homo erectus:
- Africa (Paranthropus),
- Europe (Homo erectus heidelber-gensis),
- Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
- (c) Neanderthal Man-
- La-Chapelle-auxsaints (Classical type),
- Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
- (d) Rhodesian man.
- (e) Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of life:
- The Cell,
- DNA structure and replication,
- Protein Synthesis,
- Chromosomes, and
- Cell Division.
(b) Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
2.1 The Nature of Culture:
2.2 The Nature of Society:
- Concept of Society;
- Society and Culture;
- Social Institutions;
- Social groups; and
- Social stratification.
- Definition and universality;
- Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo);
- Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage).
- Functions of marriage;
- Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive);
- Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
- Definition and universality;
- Family, household and domestic groups;
- functions of family;
- Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession);
- Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
- Consanguinity and Affinity;
- Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal);
- Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred);
- Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory);
- Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;
- Descent and Alliance.
- Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology;
- Formalist and Substantivist debate;
- Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture;
- globalization and indigenous economic systems.
- Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state;
- concepts of power, authority and legitimacy;
- social control, law and justice in simple societies.
- Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional);
- monotheism and polytheism;
- sacred and profane;
- myths and rituals;
- forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism);
- religion, magic and science distinguished;
- magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
6. Anthropological theories:
- (a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
- (b) Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
- (c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe- Brown)
- (d) Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)
- (e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).
- (f) Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
- (g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
- (h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
- (i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
- (j) Post- modernism in anthropology
- Nature, origin and characteristics of language;
- verbal and non-verbal communication;
- social context of language use
8. Research methods in anthropology:
(c) Tools of data collection:
- Case study,
- oral history,
- secondary sources of information,
- participatory methods.
- Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study
- biochemical methods,
- immunological methods,
- D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
- Anthropology of sports,
- Nutritional anthropology,
- Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments,
- Forensic Anthropology,
- Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction,
- Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
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