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II. 5.3.3 Modernization

Modernization is a concept represented by ideologies and values of industrial, capitalist and democratic Society of the Western Europe and North America. Modernization stands for neutrality, democracy, rationality, economic freedom, secularism, social mobility. It is ethically positive concept.

Modernization is a mechanism of accepting new ideas and institution through rationality, logic while westernization is a blind imitation of Western society. Modernization is represented by literacy, political participation, urbanization, occupational mobility and empathy. The Other characteristics of modernization are free market, industrialization, modern technology, democracy and Modern Education.

Concept of modernization

SC Dubey- Modernization is less value loaded compared to westernization. This concept shows concern for cultural sensitivity for elites  and masses. While designing western standard they need not abandon their own lifestyle and values. Modernization does not possess threat to cultural identity of people aspiring for Rapid social change.

Empathy,  mobility, participations are three basic features of core of modernized personality.

Modernization is social transformation which is evolutionary, gradual and linear. it can also be achieved through revolutionary, planned and intensive process. In the process of social transformation society move from traditional to modern social structure represented by equality opportunity and mobility. The opposite of modernisation is traditional society.

The traditional society are characterized by agricultural villages, small scale under developed Technology, primitive customs, simple social structure. In traditional societies there is said to be harmony in social relations and in social institutions. There is a consistency between Institutions and accepted norms and patterns of behavior. The mechanism of social control operates through customs folkways and mores. There tend to be a close correspondence between Expectations and achievements in traditional societies.

The modern society is characterized by industries, urban cities, heavy Technologies, rule of law democracy and complex social structure. The introduction of new social relations, new social roles as a result of transformation from traditional society to modern society tends to make earlier behaviour ineffective to achieve your goals. This result in tensions and frustration. To meen the changes new pattern of behavior emenrge. As a result of the old established order changes and there is confusion.  The changes in various cultural traits means acceptance of science and Technology, acceptance of scientific attitude to life, new form social organisation like Trade union. The transformation is represented by the rejection of old and acceptance of new.

Elements of modernization

  1. Technology – energy, modern machines, heavy Technology , new ideas, innovation, Research and training
  2. Economy- capital, market, commodity, consumerism
  3. Political aspect- justice, equality, freedom, individualism, democracy, political participation, rule of law
  4. Social aspect- mobility, occupational differentiation, universalism, feminism, specificity, urban industrial culture, literacy, Modern Education
  5. Psychological aspect- Cosmopolitan mind, achievement orientation, empathy

Scope of modernization

  1. Modernisation of culture
  2. Modernization of means of production
  3. Modernisation of agriculture
  4. Modernisation of Technology

Problems of modernization

the process of rapid economic development and industrialization are bound to take place in modern society they are the indicators of modernization but that’s at the same time they generate problems of regional imbalance,  pollution, ecological degradation, climate change, evolution of slums which are linked to violence crime and delinquency . Democracy is supposed to provide equal opportunity to all citizen in legal and political equality. It is supposed to increase human dignity but election have encouraged regionalism,  communalism and casteism in India society.

SC Dubey- Regional inequality and regional imbalances have started rural unrest and politicization of rural problems. Regional imbalance in the field of Agricultural have resulted in agrarian Crisis, mass suicide of farmers.

Models of modernization

S C Dubey – there is no standard model of modernization and no fixed path for its attainment. We have chosen democracy and secularism as the basis of modernization Indian society.


Adoption of Science and Technology will go a long way in achievement cultural and technological modernization of indian society.

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