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II.5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society

  1. Sanskritization,
  2. Westernization,
  3. Moderni-zation;
  4. Inter-play of little and great traditions;
  5. Panchayati raj and social change;
  6. Media and social change.


The interplay of traditions is through two different processes. The orthogenetic process involves indigenous process of socio cultural change while the heterogenetic process involves exogenous process of socio cultural change. Changes in culture is process of interaction between orthogenetic and heterogenetic process that is endogenous and exogenous processes. The pattern of changes is generally from orthogenetic to heterogenetic. The forms of differentiation assume that the civilizations start from a primary or orthogenetic level of cultural organization and in course of time the culture diversity through the process of internal growth and through contact with other civilization. In a heterogenetic process the direction of change is from folk or peasant culture to Urban culture and Social Organization. As per professor Yogendra Singh The final stage of interaction is represented by global universalized pattern of culture through increase cross cultural contact among amongst societies and civilizations.

Milton singer and making Marriott use the concept of Robert Redfield and have conducted studies on social changes in India. They gave the concept of Universalization and parochialization. M N Srinivas studied this process of change through Sanskritization, Westernization and modernization. The other process of changes are Tribalization, Peasantization, Brahminization etc.

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