The languages of India fall into four different linguistic families. These are Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman sub-family of the Sino-Tibetan languages.
- Approximately three-fourths of the country speaks languages belonging to Indo-European family. However, only a little over one per cent of tribal population speak languages of this family, the Bhil and Halbi tribes being the two main groups among them.
- Languages belonging to Dravidian family are spoken by tribes such as the Gond, Khond, Koya, Oraon, and Toda.
- Tibeto-Burman languages are spoken by the tribes of the Himalayas and Northeast India.
- The Austro-Asiatic family of languages is spoken only by tribals in the country like the Santhal, Munda, and Ho.
L. P. Vidyarthi and Rai classification
- Austro- Asiatic family
- Mon-Khmer branch – Khasi and Nicobari
- Munda branch – Santhali, Kharwari, Ho, Mundari, Gondi, Kharia, Savara, Khond
- Tibeto-chinese sub family
- Tibeto- himalyan branch – Bhotia
- Arunachal- Assamese branch Aka, Abor, Miri, Dafla, Mishmi
- Assamese- Burmese branch–
- Naga group-Angami, Ao, Sema, Rengama,
- Bodo group-Garo, Tripura, Dimasa
- Kachin group- Singpho
- Kuki-chin group- Manipuri, Thado, Sokte, Ralte, Lushai
- Dravidian- Oraon, Malto, Badaga, Toda, Kota
- Indo-european – Hajong, Bhili