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1.8.C.4 Tools of data collection- Questionnaire

Questionnaire A questionnaire is a set of systematically structured questions used by a researcher to get needed information from respondents. Questionnaires have been termed differently, including surveys, schedules, indexes/indicators, profiles, studies, opinionnaires, batteries, tests, checklists, scales, inventories, forms, inter alia. They are …any written instruments that present respondents with a series of questions or statements […]

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I.8.C.1 Tools of data collection- Observation

OBSERVATION Observation methods have a long tradition in organizational research, and offer the promise of ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz, 1973) of what people ‘really’ do as opposed to what they say they do [action science] . Although very few researchers subscribe to an a-theoretical assumption that observation allows them to ‘see (and tell) it how it […]

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I.8.C.2 a. Tools of data collection- Focus group interview

Focus group interview Focus group research is a qualitative research method. It seeks to gather information that is beyond the scope of quantitative research. The term “focus group” is often used to describe many types of group discussions. Focus group research, however, is a true research method. As such, it uses a fairly standard methodology. […]

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I.8.C.5 Tools of data collection-Case study

Case study Case studies involve a particular method of research. Rather than using large samples and following a rigid protocol to examine a limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event. They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and […]

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I.8 (a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology

Ethnography The term ethnography has come to be equated with virtually any qualitative research project where the intent is to provide a detailed, in-depth description of everyday life and practice. This is sometimes referred to as “thick description” — a term attributed to the anthropologist Clifford Geertz writing on the idea of an interpretive theory […]

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