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Anthropology Topic Wise Previous Years Question Papers – Paper I

Anthropology Paper -1 

1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology

  • Critically examine the role of anthropology in Contemporary India. (15Marks 2014)

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines

  • Major subdivisions of Anthropology (10Marks 2014)
  • How do you situate Anthropology in Social Sciences? (10Marks 2013)

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance

  • Archaeological Anthropology (10Marks 2015)
  • Linguistic Anthropology (10Marks 2013)
  • Social & Cultural Anthropology (S.N – 1994)
  • Archaeological Anthropology (S.N – 1992)
  • Linguistic Anthropology (S.N – 1990)
  • Applied Anthropology (S.N – 1990)
  • Theme of Linguistic Anthropology (S.N – 1989)
  • New Physical Anthropology (S.N – 1989)

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man

  • Elucidate Biological & cultural factors in Human Evolution. (15Marks 2015)
  • Critically examine the Darwin’s theory of evolution in understanding Evolution. (15Marks 2015)
  • Biological Evolution of early man (S.N – 1997)
  • How Darwinism differs from the synthetic theory of organic evolution? (L.Q -1994)
  • What is Synthetic Theory of Evolution? Discuss how this theory helps us in understanding the evolutionary mechanism. (L.Q. 1993)
  • Synthetic theory of evolution (S.N – 1992)
  • What is organic evolution? Give evidences for human evolution. (S.N-1992)
  • What is Organic Evolution? Describe the theories of organic evolution. (L.Q-1991)
  • Micro evolution (S.N – 1990)
  • Elucidate the theory of Evolution as put forward by Lamark.
  • Give a critical account of the processes of organic evolution and explain how they contribute to speciation. (LQ – 1988)
  • Biological evolution and concept of new Physical Anthropology (S.N -1986)
  • Lamarckism & Darwinism (S.N – 1986)
  • Theory of organic evolution (S.N 1985)

1.5 Characteristics of Primates

  • Elucidate the skeletal differences between humans and chimpanzees. (15Marks 2014)
  • Role of Primatology in Anthropological studies. (10Marks 2013)
  • Discuss the anatomical changes that occurred in Man due to erect posture. (L.Q -1998)
  • Discuss primate locomotion with special reference to adaptation to arboreal life. (L.Q – 1996)
  • Adaptive radiation in primates (S.N – 1995)
  • Primate (S.N – 1994)
  • Narrate with reasons man’s place in primate order (L.Q – 1994)
  • Discuss the similarities and differences between Chimpanzee & Man in salient physical and anatomical characteristics. (L.Q – 1993)
  • Anthropoid Apes (S.N – 1992) What are the characteristic physical features of the primates?
  • Show the position of man among the other primates in a tabular form. (L.Q -1992)
  • Why is Man a primate? Describe the place of Man in the animal kingdom. (L.Q -1991)
  • Why is man included in the Primate Order? Discuss in detail. (L.Q – 1989)
  • Characters of Primates (S.N – 1988)
  • Anthropoid apes (S.N – 1987)
  • Discuss the evolution of primates with special reference to dentition – (L.Q – 1986)
  • What are the different fossil primates of the Palaeocene & Eocene times?
  • Discuss critically the contribution of these primates to human origin ? (L.Q – 1986)
  • Give a brief account of the distribution and physical features of the Asiatic Anthropoid apes. (L.Q – 1985)

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution

  • Describe the Salient characteristics & Geographical distribution of Homo erectus. (20Marks 2015)
  • Asian Homo erectus (10Marks 2014)
  • Comment briefly on the phylogenetic position of Australopithecines (10Marks 2012)
  • Neanderthal Man (15 Marks – 2011)
  • Describe major skeletal similarities & differences between Home Erectus & Homo Sapiens (30 Marks – 2011)
  • Culture of Homo erectus (15 Marks – 2010)
  • Homo Habilis (20 Marks – 2009)
  • Distinguish between major categories of Australopithecines. How are Australopithecines different from Apes? (30 Marks – 2009)
  • Homo sapiens sapiens. (S.N-1996)
  • Discuss the geographic distribution and taxonomic issues concerning early hominids. Elucidate evidence in support of alternative positions.(L.O -1996)
  • Discuss the single source Vs multiple sources of the origin of Homo sapiens. Which one of the two hypotheses do you think is more tenable? Give reasons in support of your answer (L.Q – 1995
  • Homoerectus finds from Africa. (S.N – 1995) (S.N – 1986)
  • Homo sapiens – Neanderthalensis (S.N – 1994)
  • Compare the fossil remains of progressive and ‘classic’ Neanderthal men for anatomical characteristics and spatial distribution. Examine Their phylogenetic position in human evolution. (L.Q – 1993)
  • Discuss the origin of Australopithecines Describe their spatial distribution and physical features. , (L.Q – 1990)
  • Morphological characters of Homo erectus (S.N – 1989)
  • Write what you know about Homo sapiens and Neanderthalensis. (L.Q – 1989)
  • Discuss the spatial distribution, physical features, cultural status and origin of Australopithecines (L.Q – 1987)
  • What do you understand by the term Homo sapiens’? Give an account of the distribution and physical features of the earliest fossil homosapiens. (L.Q -1985)

1.7 The biological basis of life

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology

  • Describe the absolute dating methods in Archaeology,
  • Highlighting the importance of each method. (15Marks 2014)
  • Carbon-14 method of dating (10Marks 2013)
  • Problems of dating in Prehistoric Archaeology (S.N – 1997)
  • Radiometric methods of dating fossils (S.N – 1996)
  • Chronometric dating methods (S.N – 1995)

     (b) Cultural Evolution

  • Paleolithic Culture (10Marks 2015)
  • Describe the Neolithic culture of India. (15Marks 2014)
  • Why is the Neolithic phase of culture ‘in Europe called revolution? Describe its distinctive features. (L.Q – 1995)

2.1 The Nature of Culture

  • Is culture unique to human beings? Critically examine. (15Marks 2014)
  • Why the concept of Culture Relativism been so dear to Anthropologists? (20Marks 2013)
  • Bring out the distinguishing features of culture and civilization. (15Marks 2013)
  • Cultural relativism and subsequent violation of Human rights?(15 Marks 2010)
  • Components of culture vast and varied”. Explain this statement. (L.Q. 2002)
  • Culture trait and culture complex (S.N 1999)
  • Super organic view of culture (S.N – 1998)
  • Pattern of culture (S.N-1998)
  • Acculturation and Contra – acculturation (S.N -1997)
  • What do you understand by cultural relativistic approach & ethnocentric approach in the study of culture” Discuss the logical premises of cultural relativistic approach. (L.Q – 1997)
  • Cultural Relativism (S.N -1995, 1987)
  • Culture as construct or reality (S.N -1989)
  • How does culture differ from civilization? Describe the attributes of Culture? (L.Q -1987)

2.2 The Nature of Society

  • Society and culture (10Marks 2015)
  • Incest Taboos (10Marks 2015)
  • Define Status & Role. Distinguish between Ascribed and Achieved Status. (15Marks 2014)
  • What is the basis of social stratification? Discuss with examples (20Marks 2012)
  • Explain the concept of status and role in anthropology (20Marks 2012)
  • Write a detailed note on polyandrous societies, citing Indian examples (30 Marks-2009)
  • Social stratification (S.N – 2000)
  • Social structure (S.N – 1999)

2.3 Marriage

  • Define marriage & describe the various types of marriages in human societies. (15Marks 2014)
  • Where do you situate ‘live-in relationship’ within the institution of marriage? (15Marks 2013)
  • Ways of acquiring a spouse in simpler societies (12Marks 2012)
  • How does taboo serve as a means of social control?(15Marks 2013) * Incest Taboo (S.N – 2006)
  • Describe various ways of getting mate in Primitive Society. Give examples from Indian context.(L.Q-1994)
  • Matrilineal society (S.N -1991)
  • Describe the problems of Universal definition of marriage. (L.Q – 1991)
  • Describe the different forms of marriage among the tribal people of India. (L.Q – 1991)
  • Define Marriage. Describe its different forms with suitable examples as prevalent among the tribal people of India. Point out the Functions of marriage. (L.Q – 1989)
  • What are incest regulations? Bring out their socio-cultural functions in the context of stability in the institutions of marriage, family and kinship.(L.Q. 1988)
  • What are various forms of preferetial mating? Explain with Indian examples. (L.Q – 1985

2.4 Family

  • Define family and critically examine Universality of Family. (15Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the impact of urbanization and feminist movement on family. (20Marks 2013)
  • Is family a social institution? (12Marks 2012)
  • What do you understand by Feminist movements? Discuss their impact on family. (L.Q – 2002)
  • Critically comment on the forces and factors that have brought about changes in the family structure in recent times (L.Q 1999)
  • Do you agree with the view that family is a ‘universal association’? Critically examine the above statement. (L.Q -1998)
  • Examine family both as a social group and as an institution. Describe the functions of family and household, Indicating there in the recent changes. (L.Q -1996)
  • Is family a Universal Social group? Critically examine this with examples. (L.Q 1993)
  • Give a comparative account of different types of family in the tribes of India. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples. (L.Q – 1990)
  • Universality of family (S.N – 1988)
  • Give a comparative account of different types of family in tribal & non-tribal societies of India.(L.Q1987)
  • What are the major functions of the family? Indicate the recent changes that have taken place in its types and functions with special reference to India. (L.Q – 1985)

2.5 Kinship

  • Double Descent (10Marks 2014)
  • Various types of descent (10Marks 2013) (S.N – 2008)
  • Describe types of kinship groups formed on the basis of different principles(20Marks 2012)
  • What factors are responsible for bringing about variation in residence of different societies? Explain how kinship influences man’s social life. (30 Marks 2010)
  • Segmentary lineage and territoriality (15 Marks – 2010)
  • Define kinship & throw light on ‘functional importance’ of kinship in Anthro. (L.Q 2003)
  • Explain the salient features of Descent and Alliance theories.
  • Discuss their relevance to the analysis and understanding of social structure (L.Q – 2001)
  • Discuss the distinguishing features of unilineal, bilineal and bilateral kin groups with
  • Suitable examples in support of your answer. (L.Q -1997)
  • What is Kinship System? Describe the changing roles of the system in the context of westernization in India. (L.Q – 1995)
  • Kinship terms and Kinship behavior (S.N – 1994)
  • What is kinship system? Discuss its relevance in understanding the social structure of society. (LQ – 1991)
  • Difference between clan and lineage in primitive society (S.N -1986)

3. Economic organization:

  • Horticulture (10Marks 2015)
  • Critically examine the Formalists & Substantivists views on the applicability of Economic laws in the study of Primitive societies. (20Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the impact of globalization on tribal economy (20Marks 2013)
  • Differentiate between Economics and Economic Anthropology (10Marks 2013)
  • Discuss different modes of Exchanges in simple societies with examples (30Marks 2011)
  • Critically examine the debate between Formalists & Substantivists (30Marks 2011)
  • What stage is known as incipient stage of food production? Point out major features of this cultural stage. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples from a specific area in the old world.(30 Marks 2010)
  • Trade & barter (S.N -2005)
  • Critically discuss the formalist and substantivist approaches in the context of economic anthropology. (L.Q – 2005)
  • Ceremonial Exchange (S.N – 2004)
  • Kula Ring (S.N -2003)
  • Primitive economic organization has several peculiar features relating to the production, consumption, distribution and exchange.” Discuss above statement by providing appropriate illustrations.(L.Q-2003)
  • Delineate the meaning and scope of economic anthropology and discuss the principles that govern production, distribution and consumption in hunting and gathering communities. (L.Q – 1997)
  • Define market. Discuss the nature and role of markets in tribal communities. (L.Q -1992)
  • Discuss the meaning & scope of ‘economic anthropology’. (L.Q – 1990)
  • Discuss the role of reciprocity & redistribution in tribal economy with examples. (L.Q – 1988)

4. Political organization and Social Control

  • Differentiate between State and Stateless Societies. (10Marks 2014)
  • Discuss the nature of Law and Justice in simple societies citing suitable examples. (20Marks 2014)
  • Band and tribal societies (12Marks 2012)
  • Chiefdom in tribal society (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Discuss mechanisms of social control in simple societies citing suitable examples. (L.Q – 2007)
  • Describe the evolution of Political Systems (L.Q – 2006)
  • ‘Primitive Society is governed by the traditional customary law’. Do you agree with this statement? Explain. (L.Q – 1998)
  • Differentiate between centralized political systems and stateless political Systems and state how law & justice are administered in stateless societies. (L.Q -1996)
  • Differentiate between state & stateless political systems. Do you think that a stateless political system can function in modern societies? (L.Q-1994)
  • Describe the means of social control in simpler societies and compare the legal system of simple and complex societies. (L.Q – 1993)
  • Explain the meaning and scope of political anthropology. Describe how law and justice are maintained in simpler societies.(L.Q-1991)
  • Explain the meaning & scope of political anthropology. Describe how law and order are being maintained in the so-called preliterate societies. (L.Q – 1989)
  • Law & Justice in simple societies. (L.Q -1987)
  • How is law administered in primitive societies? Give suitable examples. (L.Q – 1985)

5. Religion

  • How do you relate the concepts of ‘Sacred’ and ‘Profane’ in Durkheim’s theory of Religion with a focus on the role of Totem? (15Marks 2015)
  • Totemism (10Marks 2013)
  • Distinguish between religion, magic and science (20Marks 2013)
  • Explain various Anthropological approaches to study Religion (30Marks 2011)
  • How anthropologists define Religion? Describe various forms of religion with examples. (L.Q – 2007)
  • Shamanism (S.N – 2007)
  • “Witchcraft accusation is the result of strained interpersonal relations” – Explain (L.Q – 2005)
  • Distinguish between magic and religion. Give suitable examples. (L.Q – 2004)
  • Discuss some of the characteristic features of tribal religions in India and state how far they have changed in recent times. (L.Q – 1999)
  • Witchcraft and Sorcery (S.N -1998)
  • Why have religion and magic become stable features of a society?
  • What role do the religious functionaries play in simple and non-literate societies? (L.Q .1996)
  • Discuss the role of totemism in primitive religion, according to Durkheim. (L.Q – 1994)
  • Highlight the significance of religious practices in Tribal communities of India. (L.Q – 1993)
  • Religion and Magic (S.N – 1992)
  • What is religion? Discuss Tylor’s Theory of Origin of religion. —. (L.Q -1991)
  • Describe the Origin of religion. Distinguish between religion and magic. (L.Q – 1990)
  • What do you mean by Totemism? Discuss the role of totemism in the tribal life of India. (L.Q – 1989)
  • Distinguish between religion and magic. Critically examine the different theories of religion and comment on their relevance today.(L.Q -1987)
  • Differences between primitive religion and world religion (S.N -1986)
  • How do you explain the origin and evolution of religion? How does religion continue to function in human society? (L.Q – 1985)

6. Anthropological theories:

(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan & Frazer)

  • How did Morgan explain the Evolution of Marriage, Family and Socio-Political organization & how did other Evolutionists disagree with his explanation? (20Marks 2015)
  • How do Diffusionism & Evolutionism differ as explanations of Culture change? (15Marks 2015)
  • Point out the differences in the concepts of Classical Evolutionism and neo-evolutionism in socio-cultural anthropology. Which stage of Prehistoric culture is known as cultural evolution and why? (30 Marks — 2010)
  • Universal Culture Evolution (S.N – 2002)
  • Classical evolutionism (S.N – 1997)
  • How do the approaches of the 19th century Evolutionists differ from those of the Neo-Evolutionists? Discuss (L.Q – 1993)
  • “Evolution is biological & socio-cultural” – Discuss (L.Q – 1990)
  • 19th Century evolutionism (S.N -1988)
  • Contributions of Morgan and Tylor in the history and linguistics? (L.Q – 1985)

(b) Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German & American)

  • Historical Particularism (10Marks 2015)
  • How do Diffusionism & Evolutionism differ as explanations of Culture change? (15Marks 2015)
  • Culture area & Age area (Diffusionism) (S.N – 2000)
  • Define ‘culture area’. How did it help American diffusionists to understand diffusion of culture? (L.Q – 1998)
  • Critically examine the Historical Particularistic approach of Franz Boas to the study of culture. (L.Q -1997)
  • What was Boas’ approach of studying primitive cultures? Delineate the role of Field work and history in anthropological study (LQ – 1995)
  • Franz Boas (S.N-1991)
  • Franz Boas (S.N -1988)

(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionalism (Radcliffe Brown)

  • What is functionalism? Discuss the functional approach to the understanding of Religion. (20Marks 2014)
  • In what ways is Functionalism different from Structural Functionalism? (20Marks 2013)
  • Structural-functionalism (S.N – 2008)
  • Describe the structural features of social life as suggested by Radcliffe Brown in his theory of social structure. (L.Q – 2003)
  • Discuss the approaches of Radcliffe – Brown and Evans Pritchard to Comparative Methods in Anthropological Research. (L.Q -2001)
  • What is meant by functionalism? Discuss the basic tenets of Malinowski’s functionalism? (LQ – 1999)
  • To Radcliffe-Brown function was the contribution an institution makes to the maintenance of social structure’. Elucidate in the light of R.C. Brown’s contributions to structural functional theory. (L.Q – 1998)
  • R. Radcliffe-Brown (S.N – 1994)
  • Discuss Malinowski’s contributions to functionalism in social anthropology. (L.Q -1990)
  • Reexamine the views of R.C. Brown in connection with structure & function in Anthropology?(L.Q-1989)
  • Evaluate Malinowski’s contributions to functionalism (L.Q – 1987)
  • Examine Malinowski’s theory of needs and state its merits. (L.Q -1986)
  • Write an essay on ‘Structure – function’ theory of Radcliffe – Brown. (L.Q -1986)

(d) Structuralism (Levi – Strauss & E. Leach)

  • What are the major criticisms of the theory of “Structuralism” as propounded by Claude Levi—Strauss? (30 Marks — 2009)
  • Edmond R. Leach (S.N – 1993)
  • Critically examine the contribution of Levi-Strauss in providing a theoretical frame for the structural analysis of society. (L.Q -1986)

(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Gardiner & Cora – du Bois)

  • Discuss the relationship between culture and personality. (L.Q – 2008)
  • Critically discuss the contributions of Ruth Benedict to the study of culture. (L.Q – 2004)
  • Discuss the contributions of Margaret Mead and Ralph Linton to the analysis of the relationship between culture and personality.(L.Q -2001)
  • Discuss the contribution of Ralph Linton, Cora-Du-Bois and Abraham Kardiner in the study of personality. (L.Q – 1999)
  • Culture- Personality (S.N – 1996)
  • Model Personality (Cultural personality school) (S.N -1992)

(f) Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins & Service)

  • Explain the theory of ‘Neo-Evolutionism’ (60 Marks — 2009)
  • What do you understand by Neo-evolutionism? Evaluate how Leslie A White’s approach is helpful in understanding cultural revolution.(L.Q -2000)
  • What do you mean by cultural ecology’? Evaluate how Julian Steward’s particularistic
  • Approach is helpful in understanding multilineal evolution. (L.Q -1998)
  • Neo-evolutionism (S.N – 1997)
  • How do the approaches of the 19th century Evolutionists differ from those of the Neo-Evolutionists? Discuss (L.Q – 1993)
  • Write an essay on neo-evolutionism and cultural ecology.(S.N – 1989)

(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)

  • Cultural Materialism (15Marks 2011)
  • Cultural materialism (S.N – 2003)

(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)

  • What made Geertz’s Interpretative Anthropology distinct from Turner’s Symbolic Anthropology? What does each of them mean by the terms Symbol & Symbolic? (20Marks 2015)
  • Explain the difference between ‘Emic’ & ‘Etic’ and how does the difference derive from the study of language? (10Marks 2015)
  • Bring out the contribution of Turner and Geertz in symbolic and interpretive theories in Anthropology (15Marks 2013)
  • Critically examine the contribution of anthropologists in the interpretation of Symbols (30Marks 2011)
  • Symbolism (S.N -2007)
  • Symbolic Anthropology (S.N – 2001)
  • Symbolism (S.N – 1999)

(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)

  • Explain the difference between ‘Emic’ & ‘Etic’ and how does the difference derive from the study of language? (10Marks 2015)
  • Cognitive Anthropology (S.N – 2002)
  • What is cognitive approach? Critically examine its implications in Socio cultural Anthropology. (L.Q -1996)

(j) Post- modernism in anthropology

  • Explain the basic features of ‘Postmodernism’ in Anthropology. (20Marks 2015)
  • Post-modernism in anthropology (12Marks 2012)

7. Culture, language and communication

  • State the theories regarding the origin of spoken languages in human societies both from
  • Biological and cultural points of view. (30 Marks —2010)

8. Research methods in anthropology

  • Field work tradition in Anthropology (10Marks 2014)
  • Genealogical Method (10Marks 2014)
  • Discuss the relevance of Case Study method of data collection. (20marks 2013)
  • Relative dating methods (12Marks 2012)
  • What are the tools of data collection?
  • Discuss the advantages and limitations of participant – observations as a technique of data collection (20Marks 2012)
  • Field work tradition in Anthropology (15Marks 2011)
  • What do you understand by the following terms? (30 Marks — 2010)
  • Systematic sampling. (ii) Stratified sampling. (iii) Multistage sampling.
  • Schedule and ‘Questionnaire’ in research methodology (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Discuss the importance of field work in anthropology and describe various tools of data collection (L.Q – 2008)
  • Critically examine the contribution of Positivist and Non-Positivist approaches in Social Science Research (L.Q – 2007)
  • Schedule and Questionnaire (S.N – 2005)
  • Participatory Rapid Assessment (PRA) (S.N – 2004)
  • Discuss the contributions of field work in the development of anthropological concepts and theories. (L.Q – 1999)
  • Trace the genesis and development of fieldwork in anthropological research.
  • Assess its importance in the development of Anthropology. (L.Q – 1998)
  • Examine the importance of observation as a field work technique in Anthropology. Differentiate between participant & non-participant
  • Observation and analyze the problem of objectivity in participant observation. (L.Q -1996)
  • What are questionnaires & schedule techniques of field study? Assess their relative usefulness in anthropological studies. (L.Q – 1995)
  • Genealogical method of field investigation. (S.N – 1994)
  • Discuss the nature and logic of anthropological field work methods. How these differ from those of other social sciences? Discuss. (L.Q -1994)
  • Method and Methodology (S.N -1993)
  • Discuss the nature and method of Anthropological Fieldwork and explain its uniqueness. V (L.Q – 1993)
  • Discuss the nature and logic of anthropological field work methods. (L.Q -1991)
  • Discuss the difference between the technique, method and methodology as employed in anthropological studies. (L.Q – 1990)
  • Participant observation in Anthropological Fieldwork. (S.N – 1989)
  • How does fieldworker strike a balance between the theoretical requirements and real field situations?
  • Describe with suitable examples. (L.Q – 1989)
  • Discuss the different fieldwork traditions in anthropological research. (L.Q – 1988)
  • Fieldwork traditions in Anthropology (S.N – 1987,1985)
  • Distinguish between technique, method and methodology. Examine their role in anthropological studies. (L.Q – 1987)
  • Explain the significant role of an informant in anthropological fieldwork. (L.Q – 1986)

9.1 Human Genetics

  • Twin method in human genetics (10Marks 2013)
  • Non-Communicable diseases (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Genetics of HLA and organ transplantation (30 Marks — 2009)
  • Anthropological relevance of population genetics (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Thrifty genotype (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Pedigree Analysis (S.N – 2007)
  • Genome Study (S.N – 2007)
  • Discuss the areas in which the knowledge of human genetics can be applied. (L.Q – 2004)
  • Discuss the role of twins in nature – nurture problems and illustrate your answer with suitable examples (L.Q – 1999)
  • Define twins. Describe the methods of diagnosis of twins. In what way are twins useful in the study of human genetics? (L.Q – 1998)

9.2 Mendelian genetics

  • What are the legal and sub-lethal genes? Explain (20Marks 2012)
  • Discuss monogenetic & polygenetic inheritance in man with suitable examples (30Marks 2011)
  • What are the contributions of Gregor Mendel to the field of Genetics?
  • Discuss with suitable examples how Mendel’s laws of inheritance are applicable to Man? (L.Q – 1993)
  • What are Mendel’s laws of inheritance? Describe the recent advances in human genetics. (L.Q – 1992)
  • Describe Mendel’s laws of inheritance. What are the recent advances in human genetics and human cytogenetics? (L.Q – 1990)
  • Laws of heredity as propounded by Mendel. (S.N – 1989)
  • Discuss how laws of heredity propounded by Mendel can be understood in the context of meiotic Cell division and their applications to Man. (L.Q-1987)
  • Discuss the laws of inheritance propounded by Mendel on the basis of his classic experiments. Explain how these laws are applied in
  • The study of human genetics (L.Q – 1986)

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection

  • Define Genetic polymorphism. Give details of its types with suitable examples. (15Marks 2015)
  • What do you understand by Immunogenetics? Explain with suitable examples. (15Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the factors affecting gene frequencies among human populations. (20Marks 2014)
  • What do you understand by ‘Genetic Load’ in a population? How is it measured And what are the important factors that can influence it? (15Marks 2013)
  • What are the genetic effects of Consanguinity? Give examples? (20Marks 2012)
  • Genetic Polymorphism (15Marks 2011) (S.N -2006)
  • Conditions necessary for the operation of hardy – Weinberg law (15Marks 2011)
  • What is Balanced Genetic Polymorphism? How is it maintained in a population? (30 Marks—2010)
  • What is genetic load’ and what factors influence it? (30 Marks — 2009)
  • Inbreeding (S.N – 2008)
  • What do you understand by Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium? Discuss the factors that produce and redistribute variations. (L.Q – 2008)
  • Problems of Inbreeding (S. N – 2005)
  • Genetic polymorphism and selection (S.N – 2003)
  • Describe the major causes of change in gene frequency of a population (L.Q – 2003)
  • What are the statistical methods used in Physical Anthropology? (L.Q – 2001)
  • Sampling methods (S.N -2001)
  • Mutation (S.N – 1998)
  • Discuss the concept of Mendelian Population’ and its application in the study of anthropogenetic variations in India. (L.Q – 1997)
  • Discuss the concepts of balanced po1ymorphism & relaxed selection with special reference to malaria dependent polymorphism in Man. (S.N -1994)
  • Inbreeding and cross breeding (S.N -1993)
  • Is inbreeding different from consanguinity? Give an account of inbreeding studies in
  • India and comment on their social relevance. (L.Q – 1987)
  • Discuss role of genetic drift, mutation and migration as the causes of variation. (L.Q -1985)

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology

  • Down’s syndrome (10Marks 2015)
  • Discuss chromosomal aberrations in man illustrating with examples. (15Marks 2015)
  • Describe Turner and Kline filter Syndromes (15Marks 2014)
  • Genetic Counselling (10Marks 2014)
  • Genetic counseling (12Marks 2012)
  • Discuss the chromosomal aberrations and manifestations of Klinefelter and Turner syndromes (20Marks 2013)
  • Chromosomal deletions and numerical fluctuations may lead to gross abnormalities in man.
  • Discuss with the help of suitable example. (30 Marks — 2010)
  • Discuss different types of sex chromosomal aberrations. (L.Q -2007)
  • What is Genetic Counseling? Discuss its relevance in the present day context. (L.Q – 2006)
  • Klinefelter Syndrome (S.N – 2003)
  • Genetic counselling (S.N – 2002)
  • Discuss the relevance of human DNA profiling and Gene Mapping in the prevention and cure of diseases. (L.Q -2001)
  • Genetic Counseling (S.N – 1998)
  • Gene therapy (S.N – 1995)
  • Discuss genetic and clinical aspects of the anomalies of sex chromosomes in man with Special reference to the associated mosaic constitutions (L.Q – 1995)

9.5 Race and racism

  • *Differentiate between Race and Racism. What are three major races of the world?
  • Give important biological criteria used frequently for such a classification.(15Marks 2013)
  • Discuss race Crossing in humans with suitable examples (20Marks 2012)
  • Is Race a valid concept? Critically assess the relevance of racial classification in the Indian Context. (30 Marks — 2010)
  • Racial Criteria (S.N-2006)
  • Race & Racism (S.N – 2004)
  • Racial criteria
  • What is ‘race? Enumerate and discuss the factors responsible for the formation of races. (S.N 1998)
  • Controversies of race (S.N – 1996)
  • Discuss the role of heredity and environment in formation of race. (L.Q – 1994)
  • *Racial types of lndia (S.N – 1993)
  • *Discuss the main processes involved in the formation of races. (L.Q – 1992)
  • What is race? Describe the criteria employed for the classification of human races. (L.Q – 1991)
  • Causes of human variation (S.N – 1990)
  • How are the races formed? Describe the physical characteristics and distribution of different racial types in India (L.Q – 1990)
  • Examine critically the bases of racial classification in the light of modern developments in Physical Anthropology (L.Q – 1989)
  • Define race as a biological concept and discuss the various criteria of racial classification (L.Q – 1988)
  • Racism (S.N – 1987)
  • Factors involved in race formation in man. (S.N – 1985)

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as Genetic markers

  • What are genetic markers and what is their usefulness?
  • Why are blood groups considered as good genetic markers? Illustrate with examples. (15Marks 2013)
  • discuss the role of ABO blood group system in resolving cases of disputed paternity (20Marks 2012)
  • Give a competitive account of the variations in hemoglobin levels and respiratory functions among the populations
  • Living under different environmental stresses (30Marks 2012)
  • Respiratory Functions (15Marks 2011)
  • ABO and Rh blood group distribution in human populations (SN – 2008)
  • Evaluate genetic heterogeneity of ABC, Rh and Gm antigens. Discuss how the principal Human groups can be distinguished on the basis of their blood antigen characteristics (L.Q – 2000)

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology

  • Critically examine the physiological responses and Acclimatization to cold climate in man. (15Marks 2015)
  • What are the stresses at high altitudes? How do better cardiorespiratory functions help the native highlanders in combating low environmental pressure? (15Marks 2014)
  • Ecological Anthropology (10Marks 2014)
  • Elaborate upon major human adaptations to heat and cold. (15Marks 2013)
  • Give a competitive account of the variations in hemoglobin levels and respiratory functions among the populations
  • Living under different environmental stresses (30Marks 2012)
  • How does improved aerobic fitness increase exercise tolerance in warm humid climates?
  • Give suitable examples in support of your answer. (20Marks 2012)
  • Native Highlanders are well adapted to the High altitude environment. Discuss (30Marks 2011)
  • Define adaptability. What bio-cultural adjustment(s do humans show in coping up with stress at high altitude? (L.Q – 2008)
  • Examine adaptive significance of Human Variations in Tropical and Arctic Climatic Zones. (L.Q – 2007)
  • Biological adaptation (S.N – 2002)
  • Ecological Anthropology (S.N -2001)
  • Genetic Adaptation (S.N – 2000)
  • Define ecosystem. Explain with examples, how biocultural adaptive qualities have helped
  • Human survival in stressful eco-conditions. (L.Q – 2000)
  • Discuss the mechanism by which the human body adapts to altitudinal changes and other geographical stresses. (L.Q – 1999)
  • How are body size and shape related to climatic adaptation?
  • Discuss the ecological rules with examples from human situations.(L.Q – 1997)
  • Nutritional ecology (S.N -1996)
  • Define adaptability. Compare the adaptive responses in man to stresses at high altitudes and in a hot desert environment. (L.Q – 1995)

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology

  • Epidemiological Anthropology (10Marks 2014)
  • Discuss the role of anthropology in the understanding of health and disease. What specific understanding is available with respect to infectious and noninfectious diseases? (20Marks 2014) * What is meant by epidemiological transition? Elaborate upon its causes and consequences highlighting major health problems of our adult population today. (15Marks 2013)
  • Epidemiological anthropology (12Marks 2012)
  • Briefly discuss the important causes for the variations in occurrence and
  • Intensity of parasitic disease among different populations (20Marks 2012)
  • Social concept of disease & Nutritional Anthropology

10. Concept of human growth and development

a) Growth Stages- Pre-Natal, Natal, Infant, Childhood, Adolescence, Maturity & Senescence.

  • What are the different stages of Growth? Describe any one of them in detail. (20Marks 2014)
  • Describe the patterns of human growth and development from birth to maturity. (L.Q -1995)
  • Differentiate between human growth & development and describe the — various stages of human growth. (L.Q – 2003)
  • Describe the stages of human physical growth and development and discuss
  • The effect of nutrition and inbreeding on growth and development. (L.Q -1991)

b) Factors affecting growth and development- Genetic, Environmental, Biochemical, nutritional, Cultural and Socio-economic

  • Justify “Though human growth is under tight genetic control but it is influenced by various environmental factors.” (15Marks 2013)
  • Differentiation between Child Growth and Development. (10Marks 2013)
  • Differentiate between ‘growth’ and ‘development’. List the factors affecting human growth and development. (30 Marks — 2009)
  • Critically examine the role of nutritional, socio-economic & cultural factors on human growth and development (L.Q – 2004)
  • Differentiate between human growth & development and describe the — various stages of human growth. (L.Q – 2003)
  • Critically discuss the factors affecting human growth & development. (L.Q – 2005)
  • Define growth & maturation and discuss the different factors affecting them. (L.Q-2001)
  • Discuss the effect of nutrition and inbreeding on growth & development. (L.Q -1991)
  • Discuss the role of hormonal & nutritional factors on human growth & development. (L.Q-1 990)

c) Ageing and senescence

  • Longitudinal method of studying growth (10Marks 2015)
  • What is an Anthropometric Somatotype? Describe Heath & Carter’s method of Somatotyping. (20Marks 2015)
  • Discuss Ageing and Senescence. Describe either the biological or social theories of Ageing. (20Marks 2014)
  • Cross-sectional methods of studying human growth (10Marks 2014)
  • Ageing and Senescence (10Marks 2013)
  • Explain any to biological theories of ageing based on purposeful events. (20Markers 2012)
  • Describe different methods of studying human growth (30Marks 2011)
  • Define Somatotype. Describe the salient features of Somatotype (30Marks 2011)
  • Senescence and socio-economics in contemporary times (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Distinguish between ‘chronological age’ and ‘biological age’ (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Discuss the theories of ‘Ageing’ (40 Marks — 2009)
  • Describe various methods of studying human growth, specifying merits & demerits. (L.Q-2006)
  • Life table (S.N -2006) (S.N – 2005)
  • Methods of study of human growth. (S.N – 2002)
  • What is meant by physical growth norms? How are these made and how do they depict and growth status of a population? (L.Q – 1999)
  • Growth Curves (S.N -1998)
  • Senescence (S.N – 1995)
  • Describe methods of studying growth and physical development of children. (L.Q-1 990)
  • Give a short account of the present – day growth studies in India. (L.Q – 1985)

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility

  • Menopause and its impact (10Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the relevance of menarche, menopause & other bio events to fertility. (15Marks 2014)
  • Bioevents of fertility. (S.N -2008)
  • Menarche and Menopause (S.N -2001)

11.2 Demographic theories

  • Demographic transition (10Marks 2013)
  • Demographic Transition (S.N – 2007)

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors

  • Fertility and Fecundity (10Marks 2014)
  • Distinguish between the terms fecundity’ and fertility’. Are the factors influencing them
  • Distinguishable? Discuss. (30 Marks — 2010)
  • Discuss the biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fertility and mortality. (L.Q – 2005)

12. Applications of Anthropology

  • DNA Technology in Medicine (10Marks 2015)
  • Elucidate the role of Anthropology in selecting and monitoring of Sports persons. (15Marks 2015)
  • Forensic Science can help in Criminal Investigations. Discuss. (20Marks 2015)
  • Application of anthropometry in designing (12 Marks 2012)
  • Briefly discuss the applications of the knowledge of Human Osteology in forensic investigations. (20Marks 2012)
  • Personal Identification (15Marks 2011)
  • Discuss the application of anthropological knowledge in designing equipment. (30Marks 2011)
  • Explain the Anthropological knowledge in genetic counseling, forensic science, sports, nutrition. (30Marks 2011)
  • Role of forensic anthropology in the field of personal identification. (15 Marks —2010)
  • Analyse the various applications of anthropological knowledge to solve
  • Medico-legal problems and in the reconstruction of evidence. (60 Marks — 2009)
  • Discuss the role of anthropology n designing defence and other equipment’s. (L.Q -2008)
  • Forensic Anthropology (S.N-2007)
  • Briefly describe various applications of Physical Anthropology (L.Q -2007)
  • Personal identification (S.N -2006)
  • Nutritional Anthropology (S.N – 2005)
  • Discuss the areas in which the knowledge of human genetics can be applied. (L.Q – 2004)
  • Anthropology of sports (S.N – 2004)
  • Forensic Anthropology (S.N – 2003)
  • Eugenics (S.N – 2003)
  • What do you understand by Applied Physical Anthropology? Discuss The applications of anthropometry in designing defence and other equipment’s. (L.Q -2003)
  • Evaluate the role of Serogenetics & Cytogenetics in reproductive biology. (L.Q -2001)
  • Discuss the relevance of human DNA Profiling and Gene Mapping in the prevention and cure of diseases. (L.Q -2001)
  • Discuss the application of human genetics in the field of forensic science and diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders. (L.Q – 1999)
  • Discuss the recent developments in genetic techniques and c6mment upon their potential social significance. (L.Q – 1997)
  • Anthropology of sports (S.N -1997)
  • Forensic Anthropology (S.N – 1996)
  • Discuss the concepts of eugenics and euphemics and their potential applications to human welfare (L.Q – 1996)

Note: S.N – Short Note; L.Q- Long Question

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