PAPER – II
1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization —
Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic – Chalcolithic).
Protohistoric (Indus Civilization): Pre- Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures.
Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
1.2 Palaeo – anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3 Ethno-archaeology in India :
The concept of ethno-archaeology;
Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.
2. Demographic profile of India —
Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution.
Indian population – factors influencing its structure and growth.
3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system —
Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste system in India-
structure and characteristics,
Varna and caste,
Theories of origin of caste system,
Future of caste system,
Tribe caste continuum.
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature- Man- Spirit Complex.
3.4 Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
4. Emergence and growth of anthropology in India-
Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators.
Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
5.1 Indian Village:
Significance of village study in India;
Indian village as a social system;
Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations;
Agrarian relations in Indian villages;
Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society:
Sanskritization, Westernization, Moderni-zation;
Inter-play of little and great traditions;
Panchayati raj and social change;
Media and social change.
6.1 Tribal situation in India –
Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities —
land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation.
Development of forest policy and tribals.
Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal populations.
7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies:
Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
7.3 The concept of ethnicity;
Ethnic conflicts and political developments;
Unrest among tribal communities;
Regionalism and demand for autonomy;
Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state — a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation.
The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development.
Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism, and ethnic and political movements.