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II. 1.1 Paleolithic culture

Robert Bruce Foot was the first to discover a palaeolithic stone tool on India in 1863 and subsequently it got a boost with the YALE CAMBRIDGE EXPEDITION in 1935 led by De Terra and Patterson.

Palaeolithic culture in India has 3 phases lower , middle, and upper

Lower Palaeolithic culture

Soan Valley is one of the imp,sites where chopper /chopping tools of pebbles and hand axes – cleavers are found together.

Narmada valley at Hathnora a skeletal remains of HOMO ERECTUS/NARMADA MAN -the only skeletal remains from lower palaeolithic in India.

Middle Paleolithic culture

Middle Palaeolithic Culture: man was living in caves,used fire and hunted in groups

H.D.Sankalia established the independent existence of this phase through excavations in Navasa,in 1956.

Flake tools were discovered in Maharashtra – valleys of Godavari and its tributaries, West Bengal , Madhya Pradesh and Bundelkhand region, Bekan valkey of UP.

Bhimbetka of MP , has different types of paintings on rock shelters and caves- EXCAVATED BY V.N.MISRA.

Tools : There was a shift from core to flake tools resulted in smaller and lighter tools. It included scrapers, borers , burins ,points, some hand axes ,cleavers, chopper,chopping tools and blades

The materials used was orthoquartzite for hand axes and cleavers other tools were made on yellowish quartzite.

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