Factors for high population growth in India
- Excess of Birth rate over death rate – Death rate has been declining in India at a greater rate as compared to reduction in Birth rate resulting in a net addition of population. The decrease in death rate can be attributed to
- advancement in medical science thereby reducing deaths due to diseases like malaria, dengue, TB, Cholera, plague, small pox, etc
- Improved communication network resulting in greater access to populations to medical facilities,
- reduction / elimination of famines due to better management of food supplies eg: buffer stocks, advancements in agriculture, green revolution, etc
Other factors are
- Child marriage and Early marriage especially of females
- Lack of conscious family planning
- Age composition- high population of sexually active age group
- Low literacy rate especially among females. (Female 64.6% ; Male 80.9% ; overall 73% as per Census 2011)
- Prevalence of largely peaceful conditions with no major events such as war, conflicts and disasters claiming large number of lives.
- Religious beliefs and practices- Children as Gifts of God,
- Political factors
- Social factors- poverty , preference of male child, joint family social system
- Economic factors- income security with more working hands
Indian population has been growing at decadal rate ranging from about 13% to 25 % since independence with the maximum being 24.8% during 1961-71. Subsequently the population of India has been on a growing at a reducing growth rate increase with the latest (census 2011) decadal growth rate being 17.69%.
It is notable to state that it is for the 1st time since 1921 that the population of India has shown a declining trend in terms absolute numbers added in census 2011.