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II. 2 Indian population; factors influencing its structure and growth.

Factors for high population growth in India

  1. Excess of Birth rate over death rate – Death rate has been declining in India at a greater rate as compared to reduction in Birth rate resulting in a net addition of population. The decrease in death rate can be attributed to
  2. advancement in medical science thereby reducing deaths due to diseases like malaria, dengue, TB, Cholera, plague, small pox, etc
  3. Improved communication network resulting in greater access to populations to medical facilities,
  4. reduction / elimination of famines due to better management of food supplies eg: buffer stocks, advancements in agriculture, green revolution, etc

Other factors are

  1. Child marriage and Early marriage especially of females
  2. Lack of conscious family planning
  3. Age composition- high population of sexually active age group
  4. Low literacy rate especially among females. (Female 64.6% ; Male 80.9% ; overall 73% as per Census 2011)
  5. Prevalence of largely peaceful conditions with no major events such as war, conflicts and disasters claiming large number of lives.
  6. Religious beliefs and practices- Children as Gifts of God,
  7. Political factors
  8. Social factors- poverty , preference of male child, joint family social system
  9. Economic factors- income security with more working hands

Indian population has been growing at decadal rate ranging from about 13% to 25 % since independence with the maximum being 24.8% during 1961-71. Subsequently the population of India has been on a growing at a reducing growth rate increase with the latest (census 2011) decadal growth rate being 17.69%.

It is notable to state that it is for the 1st time since 1921 that the population of India has shown a declining trend in terms absolute numbers added in census 2011.

Demographic Transition Theory



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