Various social, political, economic, and legal factors have contributed to the problem of tribal unrest.
1) Governmental failures-
- Lethargy, indifference, and lack of sympathy from administrators and bureaucrats in dealing with tribal grievances.
- Lack of legislation to prevent the passing of tribal land into the hands of non-tribals.
- Ineffective government measures to rehabilitate tribal population
2) Political indifference
3) Absence of efficient tribal leadership
- Lack of interest and dynamism among the political elite to solve tribal problems.
4) Unjust forest policy
- Harshness of forest laws and regulations.
5) Alienation of tribal land
6) Irresponsibility and lack of accountability of the Agencies of Tribal Development
- Delay in implementation of recommendations made by high level bodies.
- Discrimination in implementation of reformatory measures.
7) Forceful cultural impositions
Major types of tribal movements:
- Religious and social reform movements
- Movements for statehood within the Indian Union or for autonomy for tribal areas.
- Insurgent movements for independence from Indian Union
- Movements for asserting cultural rights
Severe economic exploitation, grabbing of land, sexual abuse, and conversion have caused for strong reaction among tribals. They are agitated over these exploitations, ever since the days of the British rule they have been revolting against the establishment for various reasons. The important tribes involved in revolt in the 19th century were Mizos, Kols, Mundas, Khasis, Garos, Santhals, Nagas and Kondhs. After independence also many tribal revolts took place in North- East frontier and central India, Some cotemporary movements are Jharkhand, Gond, Nagra, Mizo and Bodoland movements.