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I.9.7 Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors.

Genetic factors Bergman’s rule : Stockier body type in colder climates Allen’s rule: 1) Shorter limbs in colder climates—low surface area leads to body mass retaining heat 2) Longer limbs in warmer climates—high surface area: body mass loses heat Glogger’s Rule: People living in hot & damp places tend to have very dark skin Normal […]

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I.9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology

Ecological anthropology is a branch of anthropology which is concerned with bio-cultural responses and processes that affect the survival, reproduction,  development, longevity and spatial distribution of human populations It integrates findings from ecology, physiology, socio-cultural anthropology, geography etc It arose as Environmental Determinism Natural Possibilism Cultural Ecology all these approaches failed to recognize the biological […]

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I.9.7 Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: high altitude climate.

Stress – Hypoxia & Cold Stress Adaptations to Hypoxia Increase in the number of capillaries Increase in pulmonary ventilation Larger lung and residual volume Polycythemia Work capacity and diet – high carbohydrate diet Reproduction and maturity Low birth weight – reduction in oxygen demand Delayed growth Adaptations to Cold Stress Increased peripheral blood flow Warmer […]

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I.9.7 Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: cold climate.

Stress Cold Adaptations Biological adaptations Increased peripheral blood flow Warmer skin temperatures & non-shivering thermo genesis due to Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) Genetic adaptation Changes in Body size and shape are caused due to cold station. Subcutaneous fat in adipose tissue has low thermal conductivity and also its presence reduces surface area. This two factors […]

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I.9.7 Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert

Characteristics of Arid / Hot Desert Climate <100 MM rainfall Dry and random distribution of rainfall Stress Heat – Very high temperatures Water Adaptations Diminished pulse rate Lower rectal temperatures Increased sweating Decrease in salt concentration of sweat Decrease in volume of urine Taller body sizes Slender bodes with no fat Aridity – Nomadic activity […]

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