- Factors : Unit of heredity which is responsible for inheritance and appearance of characters. These factors were referred as genes by Johannsen (1909). Mendel used term “element” for factor. Morgan first use symbol to represent the factor. Dominant factor are represented by capital letter while recessive factor by small letter
- Allele : Alternative forms of a gene which are located on same position [locus] on the homologous chromosome is called Allele. Term allele was coined by Bateson.
- MULTIPLE ALLELE : More than 2 alternative forms of a gene is called multiple allele. Multiple allele is formed due to mutation. Multiple allel located on same locus of homologous chromosome. A diploid individual contains two allele and gamete contains one allele for a character.Ex. Blood group – 3 alleles
- Heterozygous : A zygote is formed by fusion of two different types of gamete carrying different factors is called Heterozygous (Tt) (Rr) and individual developed from such zygote is called hetrozygous. The term homozygous and heterozygous are coined by Bateson.
- Homozygous : A zygote is formed by fusion of two gametes having identicle factors is called homozygote and organism developed from this zygote is called homozygous. Ex. TT, RR, tt
- Hemizygous : If individual contains only one gene of a pair then individual said to be hemizygous. Male individual is always hemizygous for sex linked gene.
- Phenotype : It is the external and morphological appearance of an organism for a particular character.
- Genotype : The genetic constitution or genetic make-up of an organism for a particular character. Genotype & phenotype terms were coined by Johannsen.
- Phenocopy : If different genotypes are placed in different environmental conditions if they produce same These individual are said to be Phenocopy of each other.
- Back Cross :A back cross is a cross in which F1 individuals are crossed with any of their parents. When F1 individual is crossed with dominant parent then it is termed out cross. The generation obtained from this cross, all possess dominant character.
- Test Cross : When F1 progency is crossed with recessive parent then it is called test cross. The total generations obtained from this cross, 50% having dominant character and 50% having recessive character. [Monoybrid test cross]. Test cross helps to find out the genotype of dominant individual. Whether it is homozyous or heterozyous for that character.
- Monhybrid Test Cross : The progeny obtained, from the monohybrid test cross are in equal proportion, means 50% is dominant phenotypes and 50% is recessive phenotypes.
Dilhybrid Test Cross : The progency is obtained from dihybrid test cross are four types and each of them is 25%.
Reciprocal Cross : When two parents are used in two experiments in such a way that in one experiment ‘‘A’’ is used as the female parent and ‘‘B’’ is used as the male parent, in the other experiment ‘‘A’’ will be used as the male parent and ‘‘B’’ as the female parent. Such type of a set of two experiments is called Reciprocal cross.
Linkage: Collective inheritance of character is called linkage. First time seen by Bateson and Punnett.
- COMPLETE LINKAGE : Linkage in which genes always show parental combination. It never forms new combination. Crossing over is absent in it.
- INCOMPLETE LINKAGE : When new combinations also appear along with parental combination in offsprings, this type of linkage is called incomplete linkage, the new combinations form due to crossing over. The percentage of new combination is equal to the percentage of crossing over.
Linkag group : All the genes which which are loacated on one pair of homologous chromosome form one linkage group. Genes which are located on homologous chromosomes are allelic so we consider one linkage group.
Sex Linkage: When the genes of vegetative / somatic characters are present on sex-chromosome is termed as sex linked gene and such phenomenon is known as sex-linkage. Two – types of sex linkage.
X-linkage : Genes of sometic characters are found on x-chromosome. the inheritance of x-linked character may be through the males and females. e.g., Haemophilia, Colour blindness.
Y-linkage : The genes of somatic characters are located on Y-chromosome. The inheritance of such type of character only through the males, such type of character is called Holandric character. These characters only found in male.
Epistasis : When, a gene prevents the expression of another non-allelic gene, then it is known as epistatic gene and this phenomenon is known as Epistasis. Gene which inhibit the expression of another non-alleleic gene is called epistatic gene and expression of gene which is suppressed by epistatic gene is called hypostatic gene.
Complementary Gene : Two pair of non allelic genes are essential in dominant form to produce a particuar character. Such genes that act together to produce an effect that neither can produce, its effect separately are called complementary genes. Both types of gene must be present in dominant form.
- Mis-sense mutation : When a nucleotide change in genetic code cause the change of one amino acid of a polypeptide chain it is called mis-sense mutation.
- Non-sense mutation : When a nucleotide change in one codon causes termination of polypepetide synthesis by producing non-sence codon.
- Same sense codon – A change in one nucleotide in a codon does not change amino acid in polypeptide chain, because both codons code same amino acid.
Variation – Individuals of same species have some difference, these are called variation.
Superorganic: This is a term coined by Herbert Spencer in 1867 and utilized by Kroeber to help explain his view of culture and culture change. He viewed culture as an entity in-and-of itself and separate from the individual. To accurately understand culture, a separate body of theory and methodology specific to culture must be utilized.
Cultural Relativism: This tenant holds that the beliefs, customs, practices and rituals of an individual culture must be observed and evaluated from the perspective in which they originate and are manifested. This is the only way to truly understand the meaning of observations and place them in historical context.
Population genetics is the study of allele frequencies in groups of organisms of the same species in the same geographic area.
The genes in a population comprise its gene pool.
Microevolution reflects changes in allele frequencies in populations.
Descent refers to a person’s affiliation and association with his/her kinsman.
- a patrilineal society- a person traces his descent through father
- a matrilineal society -descent is traced through the mother.
- Descent Group comprises of people having a common ancestor, the common ancestor can either be a living, non living or mythical being like an animal, tree, human being, thunder etc.
- Unilineal Descent is a descent group where lineage is traced either through the father’s or mother’s side.
- Patrilineal Descent is a kinship system based on patriarchy where inheritance,
status, authority or property is traced through males only. It is also known as
- Matrilineal Descent is a kinship system based on matriarchy where inheritance,
status, authority and property is traced through females only. It is also known as
- Double Descent is a kinship system in which descent is traced through both the paternal and maternal side.
- Ambilineal descent is a form of descent wherein a person can choose the kingroup to affiliate with which he wants to affiliate with, either his father’s kingroup or his mothers.
- Bilateral descent is a kinship system wherein a person gives equal emphasis to both his mother’s and father’s kin.
- Lineal kinship or the direct line of consanguinity is the relationship between persons, one of whom is a descendant of the other.
Collateral kinship is the relationship between people who descend from a common ancestor but are not in a direct line.
- Ethnology: The science that deals with the study of origin, operations, behaviour, institutions and organisations of diverse societies to understand their similarities and differences.
- Relexivity : Being aware of one’s own position relative to the material.
Multivocality: Accepting multiple interpretations and approaches as being complementary in understanding archaeological material.
Allele- alternative form of a gene at a locus.
Cline- the distribution of a trait or allele across geographical space
Ethnography- the study of the geographical distribution of racial groups and the relationship between them and their environments.
Haplotypes- a series or combination of closely linked loci.
Locus- the position of a gene on a chromosome.
Monogenism- the belief that all human races descended from a common ancestral type.
Polygenism- the theory that all human races descended from two or more ancestral types.
Race- a group of populations of a species distinct from other groups of the same species in some characteristics.
Racialism- the belief in or practice of the doctrine of racism.
Racism-a belief that human races have distinctive characteristics that determine their respective cultures, usually involving a false idea that one’s race is superior and has the right to control others.
Species- groups of interbreeding organisms of common descent with certain constant specific hereditary characteristics in common and reproductively isolated from other such groups.
Subspecies- a group of individuals or populations that share a number of characteristics in common and frequently geographically limited.
Acheulean – Lower and Middle Pleistocene hominin stone tool industry. The Acheulean tool complex is often characterized by a high percentage of bifacially flaked stone cores and the presence of tear-drop shaped tools referred to as ‘hand axes’.
- ancestral – A trait that is present in the common ancestor of a species. The large body size of contemporary humans is ancestral, as evidenced by the presence of this feature in Homo erectus.
- derived – A trait that is not present in the common ancestor of a species, but is newly arisen. The marked encephalization of Homo erectus is a derived characteristic relative to earlier, small-brained hominins.
- ecological niche – The overall set of relations that defines the place of a species within its environment. This includes the other organisms a species interacts with, such as prey or predators, as well as the physical habitats a species utilizes in its existence.
- endocasts – A natural fossil cast formed within the endocranial space of a skull. When present, endocasts provide some resolution on the size, shape, and surface structures of the brain in fossil taxa.
- encephalization – Expansion of the brain relative to body size. Encephalization represents an increase in proportional resources dedicated to the growth, development, and maintenance of brain activities.
- masticatory – Of, or relating to, the chewing structures of an organism.
- Oldowan – The earliest well-characterized hominin stone tool industry, present in the terminal Pliocene and Lower Pleistocene. This tool complex is characterized by a simple core-flake set of tools.
- polytypic – The presence of multiple forms of a lineage across a species’ range.
- sexual dimorphism – The characteristic differences between males and females within a species. Often this refers specifically to size sexual dimorphism, the average difference in body mass or skeletal size between males and females of a species.