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II.1 Major soils group of India

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research on the basis of texture, structure, colour, pH value, and porosity has identified the following types of soil groups.

  1. Alluvial soils
  2. Red soils
  3. Regur (Black-earth) soils
  4. Desert soils
  5. Laterite soils
  6. Mountain soils
  7. Red and Black soils
  8. Grey and Brown soils
  9. Submontane soils
  10. Snowfields.

Geologically, Indian soils can broadly be divided into soils of peninsular India and soils of extra-peninsular India.

  1. The soils of Peninsular India are formed by the decomposition of rocks in situ, i.e. directly from the underlying rocks. Soils of Peninsular India are transported and re-deposited to a limited extent and are known as sedentary soils or zonal soils.
  2. The soils of the Extra-Peninsula are formed due to the depositional work of rivers and wind. They are very deep. They are often referred to as transported or azonal soils.

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